Annex Part Five.
1) English Historical Documents 1042 - 1189 edited by David C.Douglas and George W.Greenaway 1953 (Eyre and Spottiswood) p216 (Back)
2) 5th January 1066 (Back)
3) William was crowned Christmas 1066 (Back)
4) Published by Paladin (1970) p264/5 (Back)
5) Other sources include The Cambridge Medieval History vol v p498 (5,000), Feudal England J.H.Round (George Allen and Unwin Ltd) 1895 p289/293 (5,000), L'Art Militaire et les Armées au Moyen Age (1946) vol 1,p285 (probably less than 7,000) (Back)
6) In The Foundations of England Sir James Ramsay notes that at Harfleur Henry's 8-10,000 men took three days in August for the landing. This landing was completed in twelve hours in October. (Back)
7) Pevensey Castle, Sir Charles Peers CBE (English Heritage) 1953 (Back)
8) The Carmen manuscript is examined in depth in part four (Back)
9) The Carmen states "You restored the dismantled forts that had stood there formerly.." (Back)
10) Jumieges refers to Pevensey whilst the Carmen refers to a camp at Hastings. (Back)
11) Built by the Romans in the 4th century. Source: Pevensey Castle, Sir Charles Peers CBE, (English Heritage)1985. (Back)
12) Reported by Charles Dawson, History Of Hastings Castle Vol1 p17 (Constable and Co) 1909. (Back)
13) Jennings and Smyth Sussex Archaeological Collections 126 (1988) 1 - 19 (Back)
14) The Norman Achievement by Richard F Cassady (Sidgwick & Jackson) 1986 p99 (Back)
15) English Historical Documents 1042 - 1189 edited by David C.Douglas and George W.Greenaway 1953 (Eyre and Spottiswood) p217-231. (Back)
16) Known as the Fryd. (Back)
17) Edited by Catherine Morton and Hope Muntz 1972 Oxford Medieval Texts. (Back)
18) Latin poetry and the Anglo-Norman Court 1066-1135 Journal of Medieval History 15 (1989) 39-62 (Back)
19) See R.L.Poole Medieval Reckonings of Time 1921 (London) p11. (Back)
20) Confirmed by Wace - Master Wace, His Chronicle of the Norman Conquest, William Pickering (Oxford) 1972 p120 and The Carmen of Hastingae Proelio, Catherine Morton and Hope Muntz (Oxford)1972 p7 (Back)
21) Late September 1066. (Back)
22) See reference (22a) later in this chapter. (Back)
23) A claim supported by Wace. See part 6 - Wace (23a) (Back)
24) Hastings Castle - Charles Dawson (Constable and Co) 1909 p 513. (Back)
25) Hastings Castle - Charles Dawson (Constable and Co) 1909 p 517. (Back)
26) See Plate 13 part 22. (Back)
27)Dawson reports that the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says, "Hi...worhton castel aet Hastinga Port" (Back)
28) See part 6, Wace's version of the same event (Back)
29) Customary funeral rights might infer a Christian burial, however subsequent evidence in this and other texts infer a Viking funeral under a pile of stones on a headland. - See The Funeral of Harold in the Carmen page xliii The Carmen of Hastingae Proelio Edited by Catherine Morton and Hope Muntz 1972 (Oxford medieval Texts). (Back)
30) See "The Funeral of Harold" - The Carmen of Hastingae Proelio, Catherine Morton and Hope Muntz (Oxford) 1972 page xliii. (Back)
31) Wace states that Harold's body was taken to Waltham, as does William of Malmsbury but circumstances suggest creative writing to cover the failure to adequately identify the body. (Back)
32) See Catherine Morton and Hope Muntz edition of the Carmen page 10. (Back)
33) Lt.Col. C.H.Lemmon in The Field of Hastings 1965 suggests that the logistics of William's invasion was comparable with those of the invasion of Europe in 1944. (Back)
34) The Companions of the Conqueror - The Genealogists Magazine 1X (1944) p 422. (Back)
35) The Carmen of Hastingae Proelio (Oxford Medieval Texts) Clarendon Press 1972. (Back)
36) The Chronicle of Battle Abbey edited and translated by Eleanor Searle 1980 (Oxford Medieval Texts). (Back)
37) A type of body armour. (Back)
38) Studied in detail in the next section. (Back)
39) J.H.Round's famous criticism of Freeman called Mr Freeman and the Battle of Hastings in Feudal England p332-398 1895 demolished the basis of Freeman's work and in so doing discredited Wace. (Back)
40) Wace's manuscript is extensively quoted as the leading authority at the Centre Guillaume le Conquérant in Bayeux, which houses the Bayeux Tapestry. (Back)
41) Documented by Eleanor Searle Battle Abbey and Exemption: The Forged Charters, English Historical Review 1968. (Back)
42) The Chronicle was written some time after 1155 and most probably around 1180 in two parts by different scribes. In consequence it was written in the region of 100 years after the actual events and the most removed of all those manuscripts we shall study. (Back)
43) Master Wace his Chronicles of the Norman Conquest from the Roman de Rou translated by Edgar Taylor Esq F.S.A. 1837 (William Pickering London). (Back)
44) Wace does not name his authority but refers to many men he knew who saw the comet. (Back)
45) An incredible 16,547 lines of detailed text. (Back)
46) Over 100 years since the Invasion. (Back)
47) A probable reference to Jumieges manuscript. (Back)
48) The fleet probably sailed on the night of 28th September 1066. (Back)
49) Littleton,1.464. (Back)
50) Compare ships oar ports (Plate 10 part 19.) with lower fort (see footnote 50a) (Back)
50a) Also see (Plate 12 part 21.) footnote 50. (Back)
51) Lt. Col C.H.Lemmon DSO Lecture to Battle and District Historical Society 17 Feb 1956. Richard F Cassady in The Norman Achievement (Sidgwick and Jackson) 1986, Roger S. Porter Chevalier des Palmes Académiques - Puzzles of the Bayeux Tapestry (Ferndale Press) 1986. B.H.Lucas Where did William land? Sussex County Magazine vol. 24 p555-7 vol. 25 p248-9. (Back)
52) See part 7 - 11 (next Chapter). (Back)
53) A ditch, also confirmed in the Bayeux Tapestry see Plate 13 part 22. (Back)
54) The same story is told in the Carmen but there the reference is to "...the King". (Back)
55) Domesday Book text and translation by John Morris - Sussex edited from a draft translation prepared by Janet Mothersill 1976 (Phillimore). (Back)
56) A land unit in the region of 120 acres in most counties. (Back)
57) The maps on this and the following page have been sourced from the Domesday Book text and translation by John Morris - Sussex edited from a draft translation prepared by Janet Mothersill 1976 (Phillimore). (Back)
58) Detailed in (Domesday Chapter - page 1 ) numbered paragraphs 1. & 2. (Back)
59) See Annex (Back)
60) Confirmed by E.M.Ward The Evolution of the Hastings Coastline 1920 Geographical Journal 56, 102-123, Straker and Lewis Romano British Bloomery in East Sussex 1938 (Sussex Archaeological Collection) 79, 224-229. Millward and Robinson South East England - The Channel Coastlands 1973 (Macmillan London). A Calendar of Patent Rolls 1494 - 1509 p214. (Back)
61) A detailed study of shingle movement is provided by Charles Dawson The History of Hastings Castle (Constable and Co) 1909 p1-6 and Coastline Changes and Land Management of East Sussex, Ocean and Shoreline Management (1988)Smyth and Jennings page 375 - 394. (Back)
62) J.A.Williamson Evolution of England (Clarendon Press) 1944. (Back)
63) The 5 meter line is the first available contour line from which comparisons can be drawn on the available survey maps. According to Jennings and Smyth (Halocene evolution of the gravel coastline of East Sussex 1990) auger tests show that Spring tide levels in the Combe Haven valley in 1066 and now were virtually the same p215 (appx 1 meter or less lower than present day). (Back)
64) The Carmen, edited by Catherine Morton and Hope Muntz (Oxford) 1972 supports Williamson's hypothesis concerning Battle being the head of a peninsula (pages 75,76,77 and 79) faithfully reproducing the original (page 110) without reference to the correct contours whilst Patrick Thornhill's The Battle of Hastings (London, Methuen and co) 1966 page38 reproduces a contour map of the head of the "peninsula" showing marshy valleys at 200 feet elevation without addressing the Telham/Broomham ridge crossing. (Back)
65) Shown shaded on Map5 earlier this chapter. (Back)
66) Source: The official guide to the Bayeux Tapestry at the Centre Guillaume le Conquerant Bayeux 1993. (Back)
67) The Bayeux Tapestry and the Battle of Hastings by Mogens Rud (Christian Eilers) Copenhagen 1988. (Back)
68) The Bayeux Tapestry and the Battle of Hastings 1066, Mogens Rud Christian Eilers Copenhagen 1983 p50. (Back)
69) Sir James Ramsey The Foundations of England vol 2 page 17 - 5,000 men, J.H.Round, Feudal England (1895) 5,000 men, The Cambridge Medieval History vol 5 5,000 men, Wilhelm Spatz Die Schlacht von Hastings (1896) not more than 6-7,000 men. (Back)
70) Volume 2 page 17. (Back)
71) Ulvjot Law Source:The Bayeux Tapestry, Mogens Rud (Christopher Eilers) 1988 page 65. (Back)
72) The fact that these properties feature so prominently suggests to the writer that they may be representations of Manor Houses. Especialy bearing in mind the stylistic similarity between the property shown on the left of Plate 11 and that of Plate 14 showing a property of some importance being burnt. (Back)
73) The feast of St Michael was 29th September in 1066. (Back)
74) Hastings Castle, Charles Dawson 1909 (Constable) p518. (Back)
75) Hastings Castle, Charles Dawson 1909 (Constable) p519. (Back)
76) The Castles of the Conquest 23rd January 1902(Archaeologica Vol.58 ) p313 -339. (Back)
77) The Cricket Ground Archaeological Survey (Hastings Borough Council) 1991. (Back)
78) A complete list of all known works is available at Hastings Reference Library. (Back)
79) See Battle Abbey and Exemption: the forged charters, Eleanor Searle, English Historical Review lxxxiii (1968) 449 - 80 as well as The Chronicle of Battle Abbey, Eleanor Searle (Oxford) 1980 pages 2 - 28. (Back)
80) The History of the Norman Conquest of England, 6 vols 1867 - 79. (Back)
81) See J.H.Round The Battle Of Hastings Sussex Archaeological Collections vol42 p54-63. (Back)
82) Salzman, Dawson, Mainwaring Baines, Hastings Museum and library as well as those other sources listed at the end of this book. (Back)
83) History of Hastings Castle (Constable) 1909 p3. (Back)
84) According to Dawson Cott. Liber., B. IV.Version, British Museum. (Back)
85) Page 517 - 518 Dawson, Hastings Castle. (Back)
86) Page 389 Dawson, Hastings Castle. (Back)
87) Page 499 Dawson, Hastings Castle. (Back)
88) Dawson, Hastings Castle. (Back)
89) Page 120 Dawson, Hastings Castle. (Back)
90) Interviews with land owners on the northern shore of the Combe Haven. (Back)
91) The America Ground, Barry Funnell (HAARG) 1989 p1. (Back)
92) Geographical Journal 56, pages 102 - 123. (Back)
93) Roman British Bloomeries in East Sussex (Archaeological Collections79) p224-229. (Back)
94) South East England - The Channel Coastlands (Macmillan) 1973. (Back)
95) Calendar of Patent Rolls 1494 - 1509, p214. (Back)
96) Historic Hastings, J.Mainwaring Baines 1986 (Cinque Port Press) p 7 -17. (Back)
97) See Part23 Plate 14 for details (Back)
98) Dawson, Hastings Castle page 19. (Back)
99) Pipe Rolls 28, Henry II, m 7.dors. “Sudsexe”. (Back)
100) Christopher Saxton 1589. (Back)
101) John Speede 1610. (Back)
102) Hastings Cricket Ground Archaeological Report , Mark Gardiner Institute of Archaeology 1987. (Back)
103) Huntingdonshire. (Back)
104) Over 550 pages of detailed inspection of the record. (Back)
105) Page 525. (Back)
106) Page 521. (Back)
107) Benoit de St Maur. (Back)
108) Appx 1090. (Back)
109) Dawson History of Hastings Castle Pages 1 - 6. (Back)
110) Compare the two maps in previous chapter (Back)
111) Charles Dawson History of Hastings Castle. (Back)
112) Dawson makes the point that there is no evidence of a main road running along the ridge between the new Hastings and Battle at this early period or indeed for many years after. Page 520 Hastings Castle, Dawson. (Back)
113) Wilting fell chiefly to Ingelran and partly to Reinbert, the founder of the Norman family “de Etchingham”, prominent for three centuries in the district. Reinbert appears to have been the first Sheriff of the Rape and Ingelran his successor”: C.T.Chevallier p34 Crowhurst Before the Normans, Jan 1969. Also tenancy confirmed by Chronology of Tenants Upper Wilting Farm, HAARG 1987 p5. (Back)
114) Page 41 of 79 September 1994 ref 10059/RC/0478/8/A. (Back)
115) Ditto 114. (Back)
116) Page 42 of 79 September 1994 ref 10059/RC/0478/8/A. (Back)
117) Page 44 of 79 September 1994 ref 10059/RC/0478/8/A. (Back)
118) Page 44 of 79 September 1994 ref 10059/RC/0478/8/A. (Back)
119) Page 14 of 79 September 1994 ref 10059/RC/0478/8/A. (Back)
120) The fields identified as 841 and 842 in the Survey. (Back)
121) Figure A4/12 does not connect to the adjacent map A4/13 with a relevant survey field omitted. (Back)
122) See Aerial photography part 40. (Back)
123) Roman Ways in the Weald, I.D.Margery (Phoenix House) 1948. (Back)
124) A bloomery is where the Romans used to smelt iron. (Back)
125) Confirmed by Jennings and Smyth, work still to be published. (Back)
126) The Iron Industry of the Weald, Henry Cleere and David Crossley (Leicester University Press) 1985 page 80. (Back)
127) This contradicts evidence provided by the Department of Transport in their archaeological survey where they state that the valley was “subject to periodic inundation’s” p 4 of 17 September 1994. They also make the claim that coastal drift and saltmarsh “commenced in the 8th century” although no other authority agrees with this until the 13th century. Jennings and Smith letter responding to periodic inundations in Combe Haven Valley is currently being transcribed to HTML. Jennings and Smyth deny inundations and also subscribe to nagivability up to the landing site in direct contradition of Highways Agency "expert" evidence. (Back)
128) When iron has been left in an acid soil such as that at Wilting the iron molecules migrate leaving an image in the soil. This image is not detectable from magnetic equipment but requires sophisticated technology to conserve the phosphate remains. (Back)
129) Stock and trade for investigations involving ancient sites. (Back)
130) Confirmed by Jennings and Smyth Mid to Late Holocene Forest Composition and the Effects of Clearance in the Combe Haven Valley, East Sussex, Sussex Archaeological Collections 126 (1988) 1 - 20. (Back)
131) Dawson History of Hastings Castle 1909 (Constable) page 13. (Back)
132) Place Names of Sussex, A.Mawer and F.M.Stenton with J.E.B.Gover 1969 (Cambridge) xiv. (Back)
133) The Queensway is the road which links north Hastings with west Hastings and is due to be upgraded to a trunk road when the bypass scheme is introduced. (Back)
134) Hastings Area Archaeological Research Group (HAARG) produced a report in 1987 where the record of the farm was studied called the Domesday Project. However the Wilting manor records are currently in the East Sussex Records office and have not been catalogued. (Back)
135) part 25. (Back)
136) The site at the top of Wilting Manor Hill, where I have marked the top Norman fort. Since writing this original text a preliminary resistivity survey has located a possible building orientated East/West at the site marked for the chapel. Full details will be available shortly at this site. (Back)
137) Field number 373 on the copy deposited in the Hastings library. (Back)
138) Littleton, i.464. (Back)
139) Plate 9. (Back)
140) The Chronicle states “Most of the boats had already been burnt at his order...” (Back)
141) The HAARG report on Wilting in 1987 reported 7 species on one side of the lane and 8 on the other indicating an age of at least 100 years per species. (Back)
142) At the rate of 1 species per hundred years as a yardstick. (Back)
143) HAARG Report Page 22. (Back)
144) HAARG Report Page 49. (Back)
145) Wace says “..and prayed to him in their chapels which were fitted up throughout the host” p159 Master Wace and his Chronicle of the Norman Conquest. (Back)
146) Archbishop Anselm’s secretary Eadmer, refers to “the church of St Mary, the Holy Mother of God, which is in the Castle itself” Dawson page 535. (Back)
147) In Crowhurst Parish. (Back)
148) English Place Name Society Volume VII 1969 p535. (Back)
149) English Place Name Society Volume VII 1969 page 504. (Back)
150) English Historical Documents, David C.Douglas and George Greenaway 1953 (Eyre and Spottiswoode). (Back)
151) part25. (Back)
152) As per the Wace explanation part 6. (Back)
153) Also as per Wace explanation part 6. (Back)
154) Points 17, 18, 19, 31, 33 and 38. (Back)
155) Neville Spearman 1977. (Back)
156) Dowsing and Archaeology, Tom Graves British Society of Dowsers, Site and Survey Dowsing Clive Thompson British Society of Dowsers. (Back)